# Using the State Curriculum: Science, Grade 4

 Clarifications: Each clarification provides an explanation of an indicator/objective to help teachers better understand the skills and/or concepts.
 Standard 5.0 Physics Topic B. Thermodynamics Indicator 1. Provide evidence that heat can be transferred in different ways. Objective a. Recognize and explain that heat can be transferred either by direct contact between objects at different temperatures or without direct contact. A spoon in hot water Heat from a flame

### Clarification

Heat energy can travel (be transferred or exchanged) from one object to another with or without direct contact. Heat travels from warmer objects to cooler objects.

Examples of heat transfer by direct contact (touching) include:

• A spoon in hot water (heat energy travels from the hot water to the colder spoon)
• A pot on a stove (heat energy travels from the heating element of the stove to the pot)
• Butter on toast (heat energy travels from the warm toast to the cooler butter)

Examples of heat transfer without direct contact include:

• Heat from a flame is transferred to the cooler air around it
• Heat from the sun travels through space to Earth